State Income Tax vs. Federal Income Tax: What’s the Difference?

State Revenue Tax vs. Federal Revenue Tax: An Overview

The U.S. has a multitiered earnings tax system underneath which taxes are imposed by federal, state, and typically native governments. Federal and state earnings taxes are comparable in that they apply a share fee to taxable incomes. Nevertheless, they differ significantly concerning these charges and the way they’re utilized—and by the kind of earnings that’s taxable and the deductions and tax credit allowed.

Key Takeaways

  • The federal authorities and most states have earnings taxes.
  • The principles and charges fluctuate between particular person states and the federal system.
  • Federal taxes are progressive, with greater tax charges on greater earnings ranges.
  • Some states have a progressive tax system, whereas others impose a flat tax fee on all earnings.
  • The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which took impact in 2018, made adjustments to the federal tax system, together with a rise to the usual deduction.

State Revenue Tax

State earnings taxes can fluctuate significantly from one state to a different. Most states have both a flat or progressive earnings tax system. A flat tax system (additionally known as a single-rate construction) applies a single tax fee to all earnings ranges. 9 states use this technique, as of 2022: Colorado (4.55%), Illinois (4.95%), Indiana (3.23%), Kentucky (5%), Massachusetts (5%), Michigan (4.25%), North Carolina (4.99%), Pennsylvania (3.07%), and Utah (4.95%).

In states that use progressive tax techniques, better earnings ranges are taxed at a better share fee. This is identical system used within the federal earnings tax system. Some states base their marginal tax brackets for this goal on the federal tax code, however many states implement their very own. Some modify their brackets yearly to maintain tempo with inflation, because the federal authorities does, whereas others don’t.

This is a take a look at the highest state marginal particular person earnings tax charges for the 2022 tax yr:

Hawaii has 12 tax brackets, whereas Kansas and 6 different states have solely three. California’s progressive tax system has the very best prime tax fee of 13.3%, which applies to singles with taxable incomes over $1 million and married {couples} with incomes over $1,250,738. North Dakota has the bottom prime marginal tax fee, with a 2.9% fee that applies to singles and married {couples} with incomes over $445,000.

Some states have little to no earnings tax: Alaska, Florida, Nevada, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, and Wyoming do not tax residents on their earnings. New Hampshire taxes solely earnings from curiosity and dividends—not earned earnings from wage and wages. The state is phasing this out step by step and plans to repeal this absolutely by January 2026. Tennessee used to tax curiosity earnings and dividends, however it accomplished a phase-out as of Jan. 1, 2021.

Revenue taxes are a major income for particular person states and the federal authorities, accounting for practically 50% of federal income.

Federal Revenue Tax

The U.S. Inside Income Code (IRC), which spells out the federal earnings tax guidelines, underwent some vital adjustments, efficient in 2018, with the passage of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA). There at the moment are seven marginal tax brackets on the federal stage: 10%, 12%, 22%, 24%, 32%, 35%, and 37%.

For the 2022 tax yr, the highest fee of 37% kicks in at $539,900 for singles and $647,850 for married {couples} submitting collectively. For tax yr 2023, the 37% fee kicks in at $578,000 for single filers and $693,750 for married {couples} submitting collectively.

This is a breakdown of the tax brackets and charges for 2022:

2022 Federal Tax Brackets and Charges
 2022 Tax Price Single Married Submitting Collectively Heads of Family
10% $0 to $10,275 $0 to $20,550  $0 to $14,650
12%   $10,275 to $41,775  $20,550 to $83,550 $14,650 to $55,900
22%  $41,775 to $89,075 $83,550 to $178,150 $55,900 to $89,050
24%  $89,075 to $170,050 $178,150 to $340,100 $89,050 to $170,050
32%  $170,050 to $215,950 $340,100 to $431,900 $170,050 to $215,950
35%   $215,950 to $539,900  $431,900 to $647,850  $215,950 to $539,900
37%  $539,900 or extra  $647,850 or extra  $539,900 or extra

And listed below are the tax brackets and charges for 2023:

2023 Federal Tax Brackets and Charges
 2023 Tax Price Single Married Submitting Collectively Heads of Family
10%  Up to $11,000  Up to $22,000  Up to $15,700
12%   $11,001 to $44,725  $22,001 to $89,450  $15,701 to $59,850
22%   $44,726 to $95,375  $89,451 to $190,750  $59,851 to $95,350
24%   $95,376 to $182,100  $190,751 to $364,200  $95,351 to $182,100
32%   $182,101 to $231,250  $364,201 to $462,500 $182,101 to $231,250 
35%   $231,251 to $578,125  $462,501 to $693,750  $231,251 to $578,100
37%   $578,126 or extra  $693,751 or extra  $578,101 or extra

Federal Taxes: Normal Deduction vs. Itemizing

Taxpayers can declare both a regular deduction or itemize their deductions underneath the federal tax system. Normal deductions elevated significantly in 2018 underneath the TCJA, making it extra advantageous for a lot of taxpayers to take the usual deduction.

This is a take a look at the usual deductions for the 2022 and 2023 tax years:

Normal Deduction Quantities for 2022 and 2023
 Submitting Standing 2022 Normal Deduction 2023 Normal Deduction
 Single  $12,950 $13,850
Married Submitting Individually   $12,950 $13,850
Heads of Family   $19,400 $20,800
Married Submitting Collectively   $25,900 $27,700
Surviving Spouses   $25,900 $27,700

As talked about above, states and the federal authorities differ when it comes to the varieties of earnings which are taxed and the deductions and credit they permit. For example, pension and Social Safety earnings are taxable underneath federal guidelines, whereas some states exempt these sources of earnings from taxation. Different earnings exemptions embrace earnings from U.S. Treasury securities, corresponding to financial savings bonds. These sources of earnings are exempt from state tax however are topic to federal taxes.

State Revenue Tax vs. Federal Revenue Tax Instance

Think about a single taxpayer who lives in New Hampshire and experiences taxable earned earnings of $75,000 a yr plus curiosity earnings of $3,000 on their federal tax return.

We’ll begin with the state earnings taxes. New Hampshire has a $2,400 tax exemption for the curiosity and dividends tax, so tax is due solely on the remaining $600 ($3,000 − $2,400) of curiosity and dividends earnings.

This implies the taxpayer would pay simply $30 ($600 × 0.05) in state taxes as a result of New Hampshire taxes curiosity and dividend earnings solely—on the fee of 5%. The taxpayer’s efficient state tax fee on their complete earnings of $78,000 (tax obligation, $30, divided by taxable earnings, $78,000) can be 0.038%.

If this identical particular person lived in Utah, all of their taxable earnings—each earned and unearned—can be topic to that state’s 4.95% flat tax fee. In that case, their state tax invoice can be $3,861 ($78,000 × 0.0495).

By way of federal taxes, underneath the progressive system, this taxpayer would pay $995 on the primary $9,950 of their earnings (excluding curiosity) that falls into the ten% tax bracket. They’d pay 12% on their earnings from $9,950 to $40,526 ($3,669.12), and 22% on the quantity better than $40,526 ($7,584.28) for a complete federal tax invoice of $12,248.40. Their efficient federal tax fee can be 16.3%.

What Is the Distinction Between Federal and State Revenue Taxes?

Federal earnings taxes are collected by the federal authorities, whereas state earnings taxes are collected by the person state(s) the place a taxpayer lives and earns earnings. (It will possibly get sophisticated in case you reside in a single state and work in one other, which occurred extra steadily through the pandemic.) There are seven federal tax brackets, starting from 10% to 37%, relying in your earnings and submitting standing. On the state stage, some states use a flat-rate tax, whereas others impose a progressive system or haven’t any state earnings tax in any respect.

Do Federal Revenue Taxes Differ by State?

Federal earnings tax charges are based mostly in your earnings and submitting standing—not by the place you reside. Subsequently, the identical federal tax charges apply to everybody, irrespective of which state is their residence. Nevertheless, state taxes fluctuate, so a taxpayer’s complete tax legal responsibility will differ relying on the place they reside and earn earnings.

Which States Have No State Revenue Tax?

Seven states—Alaska, Florida, Nevada, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, and Wyoming—haven’t any state earnings taxes. New Hampshire would not tax earned wages, however it does tax curiosity and dividend earnings. Nevertheless, New Hampshire will start phasing out these taxes on the finish of 2023, and by 2027, private earnings within the state might be tax-free.

The Backside Line

Federal taxes are the identical wherever you reside in the USA. However state taxes can differ considerably—each in quantity and within the philosophy behind them. Some states cost a flat tax and others use a progressive system that taxes high-income taxpayers greater than others. Take state taxes in account when evaluating the price of residing in varied locations if in case you have a alternative of jobs or are contemplating relocating. Notice that earnings taxes are only one aspect of taxation—property taxes, gross sales tax, and different measures can come into play in the way in which states elevate income.

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